Automotive Gas Oil (AGO)
In general, AGO or diesel is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines, whose fuel ignition takes place, without spark, as a result of compression of the inlet air mixture and then injection of fuel. Diesel engines have found broad use as a result of higher thermodynamic and thus fuel efficiencies. This is particularly noted where diesel engines are run at part-load; as their air supply is not throttled as in a petrol engine, their efficiency still remains high. This is ideal for road vehicles (trucks, buses, vans, and cars) powered by diesel engines. It is also used to power generators.
This a sticky, black and highly viscous semi-solid form of petroleum. It is found in natural deposits and also refined by-product of crude oil. The primary use (over 70%) of asphalt/bitumen is in road construction, where it is used as the glue or binder mixed with aggregate particles to create asphalt concrete. Its other main uses are for bituminous waterproofing products, including production of roofing felt and for sealing flat roofs.
Naturally occurring asphalt/bitumen is sometimes specified by the term "crude bitumen". Its viscosity is similar to that of cold molasses while the material obtained from the fractional distillation of crude oil at a boiling point of 525 °C (977 °F) is sometimes referred to as "refined bitumen”
Dual Purpose Kerosene (DPK) & Aviation Turbine Kerosene (ATK)
Dual Purpose Kerosene (DPK) kerosene is a very adaptable product, it can be adapted for both home and commercial usage, hence the name – “Dual Purpose Kerosene’. Kerosene is widely used to power jet engines of aircraft (jet fuel) and some rocket engines (Aviation Turbine Kerosene - ATK) and is also commonly used as a cooking and lighting fuel. Kerosene lamps are widely used for lighting in rural areas of Africa and Asia where electrical distribution is not available or too costly for widespread use. World total kerosene consumption for all purposes is equivalent to about 1.2 million barrels per day.
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) - liquefied by compression, consists of flammable hydrocarbons (propane and butane). LPG is a highly flammable mixture of hydrocarbon gases used as fuel in heating appliances and vehicles, and increasingly replacing chlorofluorocarbons as an aerosol propellant and a refrigerant as against Freon in order to reduce damage to the ozone layer.
Low Pour Fuel Oil (LPFO)
Low Pour Fuel Oil (LPFO) - this is one of the by-products of the fractional distillation of crude oil. It derives its usage in boiler rooms across the world especially cement and textile manufacturing industries.
Lubricating Oil and Greases
These consists of base oil, performance additives and a thickener which forms a milieu that helps maintain the oil in a semi-solid state. Soaps are widely used as grease thickeners - lithium, calcium, or aluminum soap. Grease is the most widely used lubricant for roller bearings and low velocity applications. It also has anti-corrosive properties.
Premium Motor Spirit (PMS)
Premium Motor Spirit (PMS) a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in internal combustion engines. It consists mostly of organic compounds obtained by the fractional distillation of petroleum, enhanced with a variety of additives; a 42-gallon barrel of crude oil yields roughly 19 gallons of PMS, when refined in an oil refinery.
The characteristic of a particular Premium Motor Spirit (PMS) blend to resist igniting too early (which causes knocking and reduces efficiency in reciprocating engines) is measured by its octane rating. Gasoline is produced in several grades of octane rating. Additives are added into PMS to improve its chemical stability, control corrosiveness, provide fuel system 'cleaning,' and determine performance characteristics under intended use.